Diaphragmatic Breathing Rationale by researcher Charles Carlson. Ph.D. https://psychology.as.uky.edu/users/ccarl
Diaphragmatic breathing is used as part of a strategy for obtaining a quiet relaxed state in a variety of self-regulation procedures and practices. Fried (1990, 1997) describes the rationale and physiological dimensions for diaphragmatic breathing and a number of recent publications provide support for its utility in behavioral health settings (Ferreira et al., 2013; Fried & Grimaldi, 1993; Lehrer, Vaschillo, & Vaschillo, 2000; Russell et al., 2014; Zucker et al., 2009). Studies by Lehrer and colleagues suggest breathing at a rate of 5.5 breaths/minute (or ~0.092 Hz) with diaphragmatic breathing mechanics may be optimal for increasing HF-HRV (Lehrer et al., 2000; Vaschillo et al., 2002). Our laboratory has completed a series of studies (Russell et al., 2014; Stromberg et al., 2015; Russell et al., in review) using a 6 breath per minute diaphragmatic breathing strategy that incudes a brief rest period between breaths. Based on research findings concerning the characteristics of persons with chronic masticatory muscle pain, diaphragmatic breathing training was included as a component of a package of skills found to be effective for the long-term management of the muscle pain (Carlson et al.,2001). Our research findings and clinical outcome data support the use of diaphragmatic breathing with patients experiencing trigeminally-mediated muscle pain.
Carlson, C. R., Bertrand, P. M., Ehrlich, A. D., Maxwell, A. W., & Burton, R. G. (2001). Physical self-regulation training for the management of temporomandibular disorders. Journal of Orofacial Pain, 15, 47-55.
Ferreira, J. B., Plentz, R. D. M., Stein, C., Casali, K. R., Arena, R., & Lago, P. D. (2013). Inspiratory muscle training reduces blood pressure and sympathetic activity in hypertensive patients: A randomized controlled trial.
International Journal of Cardiology, 166, 61-67. Fried, R. (1990). The breath connection. New York: Plenum.
Fried, R., & Grimaldi, J. (1993). The psychology and physiology of breathing: In behavioral medicine, clinical psychology and psychiatry. New York: Plenum. Fried, R. (1999). Breathe well, be well: A program to relieve stress, anxiety, asthma, hypertension, migraine, and other disorders for better health. New York: John Wiley.
Kniffin, T.C., Carlson, C.R., Ellzey, A., Eisenlohr-Moul, T., Battle Beck, K., McDonald, R., & Jouriles, E.N. (2014). Using virtual reality to explore self- regulation in high risk settings. Trauma, Violence and Abuse, 15, 310-321.
Lehrer, P. M., Vaschillo, E., & Vaschillo, B. (2000). Resonant frequency biofeedback training to increase cardiac variability: Rationale and manual for training. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 25, 177-191.
Russell, M.E.B., Hoffman, B., Stromberg, S., & Carlson, C.R. (2014). Use of controlled diaphragmatic breathing for the management of motion sickness in a virtual reality environment. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 39, 269-277.
Russell, M.E.B., Scott, A.B, Boggero, I.A., & Carlson, C.R. (in review). Inclusion of a rest period in diaphragmatic breathing increases high frequency HRV: Implications for behavior therapy. Psychophysiology.
Stromberg, S., Russell, M.E.B., & Carlson, C.R. (2015). Diaphragmatic breathing and its effectiveness for the management of motion sickness. Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance, 86, 452-457.
Schmidt, J. and Carlson, C.R. (2009). A controlled comparison of emotional reactivity and physiological response in masticatory muscle pain patients. Journal of Orofacial Pain, 23, 230-242.
Vaschillo, E., Lehrer, P., Rishe, N., & Konstantinov, M. (2002). Heart rate variability biofeedback as a method for assessing baroreflex function: A preliminary study of resonance in the cardiovascular system. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 27, 1-27.
Zucker, T. L., Samuelson, K. W., Muench, F., Greenberg, M. A., & Gevirtz, R. N. (2009). The effects of respiratory sinus arrhythmia biofeedback on heart rate variability and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: A pilot study. Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback, 34, 135-143.